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From the 

Fine Arts Library 

Fogg Art Museum 
Harvard University 


SunligDt and SDadou) 





IXlustvatetl lijj COvigtiiat ^Itoto0v»p1ts tvom i^ittux'e 

" The best in this kind are but shadows, and the worst are 
no worse, if ima^nation amend them."— Shakksi'Kakk 


5 AM) 7 East Sixteenth Street 

FA 6 Cp ^ o . ^^i- V c> 



- . ' ^ 

/ - -. 

.'/ ' < ^ 

C<)PYRIi:htkd iSy; 


The Baker & Taylou Company 







Y little book entitled **x\mateur Photography 
was designed, as its sub-title suggested, to be 
a "practical guide for the beginner." The 
present volume seeks to aid the more advanced photog- 
rapher. It is assumed that the reader has mastered the 
technicalities of photograph3% and now desires to make 
better pictures. 1 have therefore collected from **The 
Photographic Times/* '*The American Annual of Pho- 
tography/' and other sources, the following articles and 
illustrations by the best authorities on Photographic 
Landscape and Studio Art, including, also, some papers 
and illustrations of my own, in the hope that they may 
help, by precept and example, the photographer who 
desires to advance in pictorial photography. 



June, 1897. 



I. The Choice of Subject - - - - - J5 

II. Landscape without Fkiures . . - 23 

III. Landscape with Figures - - - - 3^ 

IV. Foregrounds 39 

V. The Sky - - -47 

VI. Out-door Portraits and Groups - - 57 

VII. The Hand Camera 69 

VIII. Instantaneous Photography . . . 79 

IX. Winter Photography 91 

X. Marines ------- loi 

XI. Photography at Night 11 

XII. Lighting in Portraiture - - - - 119 

XIII. Photographing Children - - - " 125 

XIV. Art in Grouping 133 


C)$t or Illustrations 

In Prospect Park (Brooklyn), - - - IV. /. Lincoln Adams, 

By thk Rivkr, A. L. EidemtUer, - 

Morning Mist, H. P. Robinson, - - . - 

Day's Decline, A. Horsley Hinton, 

Winter, \V. H. Dodge, - . - - 

The JirNc;FRAU, Dr. J, Meiner, - - . 

On Lf.vves Creek, H. Troth, 

Woods, P. Detnentjeff, 

By the Stream. - E, B. Garrison, _ - - - 

The JuNGFRAU, Alfred St ieg lit z, - 

In the Highlands, W. Dawes, - - - . 

Landscape and Cloids. . . - - Arthur Burchett, . - . 

Shades of Evening, Her Grace The Duchess of Scrmonet a. 

Returning FROM Market, - - - - Alfred Stic glitz, - - - 

An English Country Scene, - - - - Seymour Conway, - - . 

Study of Fisherfolk, ... - - Miss K. G. Spink, - - - 

A Sicilian Idyll, ------ Count Von Gloeden, . - - 

Mendini; Nets (Katwyk), . - - - Alfred Stieglits, - - - 

Here Comes Father, fesse Poundstone, 

A Wet Day on THE BoiLKVARD, - - - Alfred Stieglits^ . . . 

Foregrounds — No. i, H. P. Robinson, - - - . 

No. 2, - - - - - '* '* - . . 

No. 3» ** '• - - . - 

No. 4, - - - - - " ••--.. 

No. 5, " •• - - . - 

No. 6, *• " - - _ . 

ThkSkv— No. I, *• '• - - . - 

No. 2, " - . . . - 

No. 3, ------ '• •* - . . . 
















The Sky— No. 4, H. P, Robinsoti, ... 51 

No. 5, *• •• - - - 52 

No. 6» ..... ♦• •• _ . - 53 

Hilltop Farm, W, I. Lincoln Adams, - - 55 

A Gltach Mektinc;, Alfred Stieglitz, ... 57 

I NTLM ATE Friends, Mabel Osgood Wright, - - 58 

An Alpine Cross, --.... Ah'x. Keighley^ ... 60 

As She Comes Down the Stairs, - - - R, Etckemeyer, Jr., - - - 62 

"What is Your Fortune, My Pretty Maid?" Major R. H. Bro^u*n - . 64 

•* Nobody Axed You, Sir," she said, . - .... .. ... 65 

The Shepherd, H. K, Noyes - - . . 66 

" He Cometh Not," she said, .... R. Eickemeyer.Jr.^ - - - 67 

A Favorite Occupation, Venice, - Alfred St teg lit z, ... 68 

Winter, Fifth Avenue, - - . . - ♦• ... 69 

A Bloc:kade, New York, .... " ... 70 

Wash-day, Venice, - " - - - 70 

A Hot Day. -..---- " - - - 71 

In the Fields, .---.-- •• ... 72 

A Bit Near Munich, " - - - 73 

A Venetian Well, ---..- •• ... 74 

A Venetian Bit, " - - - 75 

Venetian Characters, " - - . 76 

Katwyk Beach, " ... 77 

Mid-ocean, ** - - - 78 

The Diver, --.---- Louis Meldon, .... 81 

Throwing the Hammer, 82 

A Rise in the World, ..... Tfie Marquis de A If arras, . 83 

The Start, - - James Burton, - ... 85 

Jumping. - 88 

A Snap Shot, --.---- C C. Langill, .... 89 

A Reminiscence of Winter, . - - - \V. L Lincoln Adams, - - 92 

Under the Willows. '* ** - - - 93 

A Country Lane IN Winter, - - - - A. R. Dresser, ... 94 

End of a Winter's Day, - - - - IV. B. Post, - -  - 95 

Frost Laden, .-----• Randall Spaulding - - 96 


Boston Punuc Gafdkn, Sew ton IV. EhvelL - - - 97 

A Winter Mormno in Brook link, -.. - - - ...(js 

A Rough Morning, . . _ - Frank Hurndaliy - - - ico 

Hoi.Y Loch, - - - - - - - H. P. Robinson^ . - . 102 

Mr. Gould's "Atlanta," - . - - •• ** . - . _ 103 

Valkyrie III, Ailsa, Britannia, - - . •* *• ... 104 

Sky and Sea, " " - - - - 105 

Seac.ills, ** •' - - - 105 


Marine Study, J. M. liemis^ - - . . io(j 

TwiLir.HT, MiD-ocEAN, ----- T. Frank Atktnso/i - - - no 

The Sea, - - - Harry Piatt, - - - 112 

By Bryant Park after THE Storm, - 11^. A. Fraser, - - - - 114 

The Savoy Hotel, New York— Stormy NiiJHT. • ♦•-..- 114 
Entrance TO Central Park, ..- *• •' 

The Giant Hotels, from Central Park, - " ••.... hg 

Moonlioht, Central Park, - . - " •• . . . . n^ 

Study (from Reflection in a Mirror), - - /. Wells Champnn\ - - 119 

Portrait Studies, '* ** - - 120, 123 

Isabel, P- J- Falk\ 125 

Minnie, •' -..- 126 

RosiTA, - " 126 

Rita, - •* - - - - 127 

Little Tuesday, " 128 

Childhood, ** ._-. 12S 

Child Study, -.... «• 129 

Reflections, - - •' . . - . 130 

Child Study, -...-. Fred. Boissonas, - - - - 131 

Art IN Groui'IN*;— No. i, 133 

No. 2, 134 

No. 3, - - . 135 

No. 4, - - - - 135 

No. 5, 137 

No. 6, - - - - - 139 

Scene from *• A Capital Courtshii'," - - Ale.xamler Plack, - - 140 


Chapter I 


R. XANTHUS SMITH, who is an artist 
with the pencil and brush, as well as 
with camera and lens, has treated this 
subject in his characteristically in- 
structive style, in an article which was 
printed in The Photographic Timks 
some time ago. The illustrations, 
from the portfolios of several photog- 
raphers, happen to be all of pure landscape, that is, 
without figures ; but here pictorial photography properly 
begins, and the young amateur will do well to perfect his 
landscape art before attempting the more diflficult subject 
of figures. Mr. Smith says : 

Choice of subject is an exceedingly important con- 
sideration for the majorit)^ of amateurs. 

By a judicious choice of subject the finished work of 
one photographer will be universally interesting, while 
that of another, from lack of knowledge or happ)'^ tact in 
picking out that which he photographs, will utterly fail 
to attract. 

There are three leading considerations to be taken 



into account in making pictures with the camera. We 
must either aim at a truthful representation of something 
interesting to ourselves or our friends ; or we must pre- 
sent a picture that tells a story and is of wide interest ; or 
else strive to attain a result that is purely artistic, that is, 
dependent for its interest and success upon its composi 
tion and effect. 

The first of these considerations is altogether the 
simplest and easiest. Views made as records alone need 
give us little care, but when we wish to give our w^ork 
the wider interest of depicting some incident more or less 
striking or amusing, wx must use our wits to the best 
advantage ; we must, either by readiness and luck}^ 
chance, or by careful preparation, get the numerous in- 
cidents that are taking place connected with animated 
nature, either pathetic or humorous. The picturesque 
must enter largely into our subjects. Old people, gener- 
ally of the lower walks of life, utterly unsophisticated, 
children and animals, give us the material that will make 
the most generally taking pictures, and if we can be so 
fortunate as to catch those incidents or happenings that 
are peculiar and of rare occurrence, and are such as 
would be interesting if described, we may rid ourselves 
of any care as to the artistic treatment of the subject 
because the picture will go upon its merits independent 
of art. Of course, if w^e can attain an artistic treatment 
in addition to a w^ell-told story, it will be so much the 




j^reater triumph. But it is too much to expect to f^et 
both by photography alone. A combination of telling 
incident with tine artistic qualities makes those greatest 



of triumphs that we see only in the works of eminent 
artists ; they are great for all time, and it seems in the 



course of nature that there are not ver}^ many of them 
to be produced. 

Subjects founded on the third, or purely artistic side 
of art, will be the most difficult to manage. 

The best field for such is out-door nature. Land- 
scape, chiefly where the effects of open nature give us 
that vagueness and scope for the imagination, which we 
cannot have in dealing \vith close-at-hand subjects of 
animate life — and with sufficient knowledge and skill the 
most simple subjects in nature maj^ often be made to 
yield the most interesting pictures. The securing of a 
suitable effect or treatment for a scene in nature is of 
prime importance. For a rugged mountain scene we do 
not w^ant the calm and serene. Gathering storms and 
rolling, lowering mists, heighten the mysterious senti- 
ment of such places, and should there be figures, let 
them be hurrjdng anxiousl5^ as if storm -driven and 
anxious to be away from the wild, awe-inspiring region. 
Or a lone fisherman, where a mountain torrent dashes 
down, might be plying his hook, utterly oblivious to his 
surroundings in the eagerness of his pursuit. 

For scenes that partake of the pastoral or beautiful 
we want a serene atmosphere, and all the intricacy and 
beauty of light and shadow that we can secure, and in- 
variably a large amount of vapor or haziness. 

In either the grand or the beautiful in pictorial art, 
we must have a considerable amount of simplicit}'^ of 





arrangement, and the more breadth and force of effect 
we can have, the more impressive and interesting our 
pictures will be. 

The introduction of appropriate skies is of prime 
importance in landscape. Cloud effects, while they 
heighten and complete the interest in full landscape 
scenes, are absolute!}^ the making of simple, low horizon 
stretches of moor, or flat, sandy coast views. All persons 
of a poetic or artistic nature are great admirers of sky 
effects. The eminent poets have dwelt upon them to the 
delight of thousands of readers, and the eminent land- 
scape painters have given the greatest attention to the 
rendering of interesting sky effects, thereby enriching 
the interest and beaut)^ of their works for generations of 

Many difficulties attend the securing of good sky 
effects in photographs ; but, nevertheless, we would ur- 
gently recommend all photographers to devote as much 
time and attention as they can to securing good skies in 
their work— using any of the best know^n means. We 
are confident that in so doing thej^ will be taking one of 
the most direct roads toward elevating their work as a 
fine art. 

Chapter II 


|S suggested in the preceding chapter, pure 
landscape, without figures, is properly 
the first pictorial work which should en- 
gage the attention of a photographer, as 
in this field he is most likel}^ to attain 
satisfactory results at the start. The 
more diflficult subjects, with figures, maj^ 
be taken up later, and these are there- 
fore treated in subsequent chapters. 
Successful landscape work requires : First, a trained 
ejx to discover and select the pictorial in nature ; and, 
second, a cultivated judgment for deciding the conditions 
under which the picture shall be photographed. 

There is considerable opportunity for the expression 
of individual taste in landscape work, for one can deter- 
mine the character of one's picture to a degree which 
may not at first be realized. The atmospheric conditions 
vary so greatly through the course of a year, or even of 
one day, that in choosing the time when the photograph- 
ing shall be done, one can give almost any character 



desired to one's landscape. And the chiaro-oscuro can also 
be intelligently determined by the time selected for the 

If a favorite 
scene does not 
completely satis- 
fy under certain 
conditions at one 
time, it may prove 
more satisfactory 
under different 

circumstances at winter By w. h. tolgb 

another hour of the day or season of the year. One may 
study a picture in nature under the varying conditions o 

light and shade, 
atmosphere, etc. 
throughout an en- 
tire year, photo 
graphing it occa 
sionally and com 
paring the results, 
until the perfect 
result is obtained 
at last, for in this 
THK juNGFRAi' Hy Dr. J, mmm-:« wotIc vve may 

hope very nearly to approach perfection. 

The fruit of such a loving study of nature with the 


camera, is infiniteh' more precious than the portfolio of 
exquisite landscapes may indicate. There results a train- 
ing of the eye which is far great- 
er compensation, tor henceforth 
one may enjoy pictures at every 

The character of a landscape 
photograph may also be deter- 
mined to a large extent by the 
point" of view selected for the 
photographing ; and the focus of 
the lens employed, the size and 

shape of the plate are additional woods bv p. dbmbntjef. 

factors at the photographer's disposal in determining the 

character of his 

In selecting the 
method for print- 
ing there is room 
for the exercise 
of considerable 
taste. We have 
so many methods 
at our disposal 

BV THE STREAM By E. B, Ga^k.s.-n nOW that WC CaU 

give a wide varietv of effects to our finished photographs. 

The judicious photographer will print a winter scene in a 



cold bromide or platinotype. The cyanotype or "'blue" 
print often produces a snow or ice picture with excellent 


effect. A warm, summer scene should be printed in a 
warm color, of course, and so on. 


The mount should be selected to suit the character 
and tone of the print, and in most cases a plain mount 
without any gilt to detract the eye from the picture itself 
will be found most agreeable. Large cards of neutral 
tints, leaving broad margins, are usually most effective 
as mounts for landscape photographs. 

Thus it is, while recognizing the limitations of the 


camera, but using all the means at command, a skilful 
technical photographer with a trained eye for the beauti- 
ful in nature, may succeed In making highly satisfactory 
pictorial photographs from the landscape about him. 
when he could onl}^ fail in similar attempts at figure 
composition and genre. 

Therefore. I advise the beginner, at least, to confine 
his efforts to pure landscape, without tigures. The illus- 


trations accompanying this chapter are from the coUect- 
tions of several different workers : but all, 1 think, show, 
in an eminent degree, how great the possibilities are of 
the camera, in the hands of trained photographers, to 
produce, from pure landscape, without figures, entirely 
satisfying pictures. 


Cbapur III 


FTER acquiring a certain proticienc}' 
in photoj^raphing pure landscapes, 
without the introduction of figures 
of any kind, the more diflficult work 
of making pictures of natural scen- 
ery, in which figures play a promin- 
ent part, may properly be taken up. 
It is a curious fact, that while in 

By A. Siii.,,i.,ii 

nature the presence of one or more 
figures gives life to the scene, adds a certain human 
interest, and removes anj^ feeling of desolateness which 
might otherwise exist, yet, in the majority of land- 
scapes which include figures, they appear stiff and un- 
natural, and one is left with the feeling that the picture 
would have been better had the figures been omitted. 
Andrew Pringle, in one of his humorous papers contri- 
buted to The British Journal ok Puuihhirai'HV. very 
cleverh' says: "A very crucial test of a man's artistic 
power is his selection and arrangement of figures in a 
landscape. I do not wish to be hypercritical, and the 
stone 1 throw hits myself often, but I must say that 


in ninety-nine out of every hundred landscapes with 
figures that I see, the figures ruin the wliole affair. 
They are inappropriate figures, inappropriately dressed, 
inappropriately occupied, inappropriately posed, inappro- 
priately and wrongly placed, and in most cases would be 
better at home in bed. Whatever figures are in a land- 
scape picture, they are sure to catch the eye. If they are 
near the camera the eye can, with difficulty, look beyond 
them. If they are at a moderate distance thej' irritate 
and distract unless treated with the greatest skill. If at 
a distance, they look 
like defects in the 
plate ; if they appear 
near one side of the 
picture they are al- 
most in all cases fatal, 
while in the middle 
they are almost in- 
variably mischievous. 
I have never myself 
learned properly to 
arrange figures in a 
landscape, and I pre- 
fer sins of omission 

to those of deliberate returning from market bv Ki,f»%a stibcliti 

commission, so as a rule I leave figures out, and among 

the photographers of the world I cannot count more than 




three or four who ever use tij^ures perfectly, and not one 
who is always happy in his arrangement." Much that 
Mr. Prinj^le savs is undoubtedly true, and I have accord- 
ingly adopted his plan, confining myself, for the most 
part, to pure landscapes. It should be remembered that 
a picture is rarely, if ever pleasing, where the figures and 
the landscape both claim the attention of the observer. 
The one must be subordinate to the other. Take, for 
instance, the picture shown here entitled "Study of 


Fisherfolk. " The landscape, or rather the seascape, is of 
little, if any, importance. It is a study of figures ; the 
rest is merely a background. The same may be said of 
Mr. Stieglitz's picture, " VIending Nets." In the little 
picture which is used as an initial letter to the chapter, 
and the picture entitled "An English Country Lane," we 
have the opposite effect. They are landscape studies, 
with figure introduced to give life to the scene. 


Before introducing a figure into a landscape, the pho- 
tographer should first of all consider, and consider very 
carefully, whether it is necessary and whether it will be 
an improvement. If he thinks it would improve the 
picture, then decide the kind of fi^L'-re most suitable to 

A SICILIAN IDYLI. By Coint vu\ tiu-t.ut 

the subject. If it is not suitable, by all means omit it. 
How often is it apparent that the photographer has had 
with him some friend who is anxious to be included in 
the photographs. "All right," says the camera man. 
"go and stand over there." So the delighted friend goes 


and stands "over there" with an attitude and expression 
resembling a stuffed dummy The exposure is made, 
the picture finished, and the friend is delighted. If 
the photographer possesses any artistic taste, he realizes 
then his mistake. He cuts off the figure and tinds how- 
much the picture is improved. 

In this article I give a few illustrations by Mr. Alfred 
Stieglitz, which will serve as a lesson much better than 
anything I can write. If one careful!}' studies these he 
will find how careful the artist has been to have his figures 
in a natural position. They are there because the}' are 
required, and because each picture would be incomplete 
without them. There is an absolute unconsciousness, 
on the part of the subjects or models, of the existence 
of the camera, and this is perhaps the true secret of ob- 
taining successful pictures of landscapes with figures. 

Chapter IV 


N Thk Piiot()(;kai'hic Timks for Juh", 
1895, Mr. H. P. Robinson, the vet- 
eran Enjjlish artist, photographer, 
and writer, treats this important 
subject in his usual illuminating:; 
way. The attractive illustrations 
are also by Mr. Robinson. We 
reprint his language verbatim. 
In a landscape, he says, bj' whatever means, but in pho- 
tography more particularly, the foreground is usually a very 
important part of the picture. Why the foreground should 
be thought of more consequence in a photograph than in 
a painting is not far to find. In painting, the artist has 
more command than the photographer over his effect in 
representing the more distant parts of his subject ; he 
can perform the function of faith and remove mountains ; 
he can build castles or temples just as the fancy takes 
him to be gothic or classical ; he can divert the course of 
rivers ; he can destroy or he can build up, but he cannot, 
without very great labor and preraphaelite skill, rival the 
sun artist in his power of representing foreground detail, 


and as it is natural that all means of art should tend 
toward the kind of production for which it is most fitted, 
it follows that, however it may show its varied powers 
in other directions, photography almost insensibly gravi- 
tates toward the kind of effect which shows its peculiar 
powers to best advantage. In saying this I must not be 
misunderstood to infer that because a lens can always 
secure detail that detail is always worth securing. On 
the contrary, sharpness, as its name implies, is an edged 
tool, very useful in skillful hands, but if not used with 
caution, dangerous and sure to wound ; and indeed has 
caused much mischief in pictorial photograph}'. 

Another reason why the photographer should value 
the foreground is that it is more within his reach than 

other parts, and 
offers him greater 
facilities for cor- 
recting his com- 
position. It also 
is valuable as giv- 
ing him the power 
of showing that 
his picture was 
not one of nat- 
*i'-- I ure's flukes, and 

that the artist had more to do with the tune than merely 
turning the handle, whether the music was good or bad. 


Here I will venture on a digression. It is the fashion 
of those who confound nature with art. and take only a 
superficial view 
of both, to say 
everything in a 
picture should 
look "natural." 
This is right to a 
great extent, but 
not always all the 
the way ; it de- 
pends upon what 

is taken to be nat- nu. , 

ural. and above all, as the object is a picture, whether 
the "natural" be pictorial. To "look natural" is com- 
mendable, but it is not the end and aim of art. Photog- 
raphy itself ought not to be blamed for sins committed in 
its name. It is the result of want of thought, bad taste, 
stupidity or ignorance, that in nine cases out of ten. or 
more, when figures are designedly introduced into a pho- 
tograph, they appear stiff, stark, and utterly unnatural 
and out of place. Now, according to the usual perver- 
sion of things all the blame is put upon the method ; it is 
photography and not the photographer that is found at 
fault. Figures are condemned because the placer of 
them is sometimes condemnable. That it is not the fault 
of the art. but of the — operator (I won't call him artist in 


this connection), has I think been sufficiently shown, 
and I go so far as to saj' that more natural action, more 

effect of sponta- 
neit}- in tijjures 
can be got, in ca- 
pable hands, by 
posing, than is 
ever obtained by 
instantaneous ex- 
posures made 
without the know, 
ledge of the vic- 
n'i. 3 tim. Who ever 

saw the petrified figures of men standing on one leg in 
the streets before the '"so natural" snapshottist took 
them unawares? Who has not wished in looking at 
a chance shot that this figure was more to the right or 
left, and that figure more in the picture, or away alto- 
gether? Nevertheless the hand camera is a splendid tool 
when used seriously. 

It is not every subject that has a picturesque or suit- 
able foreground ready made. We often meet with a 
scene that would make a fine picture if it were not for 
the bald, uninteresting foreground, the level meadow, or 
the dusty, dreary road ; but it is often within the power 
of the ingenious photographer to do well with unpromis- 
ing materials. In selecting a subject we choose that 


standpoint which brings into prominence its most inter- 
esting feature, or it may happen that we add the leading 
attraction for the eye in the shape of a group of figures ; 
in either case we try to subordinate all the rest to the 
principal object. A very little variation in the point of 
view may make all the difference. We may hide the 
ugly and give prominence to the beautiful, introduce 
new beauties, or increase breadth of effect by possibly a 
movement to be measured by feet or inches. Blank- 
spaces or flat foregrounds may often be improved by the 
long shadows of evening, or by the introduction of tig- 
ures. and much may be done in some cases by the 
judicious use of the pruning hook. If the scene be the 
chief consideration, the tigures must be kept subordinate, 
but it is becom- 
ing usual among 
painters to make 
tigures of more 
importance in 
their landscapes. 
One or two of my 
illustrations show 
how rather large 
figures may be 
sometimes used. "''- ■* 

It is really wonderful how much may be done by 
very little if done judiciously. A small spot of white or 


black, and occasionally of both, ma}' turn a poor subject 
into a ver\' presentable picture. The spot, for pictorial 
purposes, may consist of anything, but preferably it 
should add interest to the subject. 

It would be useless to go into details as to the ar- 
rangement of various kinds of foregrounds. The student 
should study the general laws of art, and with their aid, 
and the common sense and quick perception without 
which no photographer can hope for the highest success, 
he will be able to deal with each case as it arises, remem- 
bering that the more simple the subject and broad the 
effect, within limits, the better. 

By way of illustration i have selected a few pictures 
that owe a good deal of their effect to, and would not be 

pictcrially com- 
plete without, 
their foregrounds, 
all of which owe 
something to the 
hand or head of 
the photographer. 
Fig. I is a river 
scene in which 
the foreground 
^"- 5 consists of a mass 

of large-leaved plants, full of the most minute detail, yet 
the mass forms as a whole a breadth of light, contrasting 


and sending back the slightly less made out middle dis- 
tance. In this case the plants are interesting as being 
the largest leaved 
indigenous plants 
we have and are 
only met with in 
certain parts of 
the country. Pic- 
torially the fore- 
ground was the 
motive of the 

Fig. 2, an ex- ^^''- '' 

ample of a circular foreground. The banks rise on either 
side and partly frame in the cows. The banks fonn 
agreeable lines and contrast the horizontal lines of the 
meadows, the shade on the left being well opposed to the 
mass of light on the right. 

Fig. 3 shows how a good subject, but with some 
awkward lines in the foreground, has been made into a 
picture by the introduction of figures. Tr3' to imagine 
the scene without the figures — the boat may be left. 
However interesting the screen of trees there would be 
no picture. In this case something has been added to 
the atmospheric effect by allowing the mid-distance to be 
a little out of focus. The use of small touches of black 
and white is also shown. This picture is interesting to 


me as being the first landscape I ever exposed on a gela- 
tine plate (15 X 12). This was in May, 1880. I took four 
plates only to Wales, experimentally, and on developing 
at home was astonished at the result, and at how eas}^ 
picture making away from home had become. 

Fig. 4 is an illustration of the use of large figures in 
aid of the foreground. 

Fig. 5 was originally a negative of a boat and a 
beautifulh^ composed bit of sea, with an awkward line of 
beach, making the whole utterl}^ uselcvss as an exhibit- 
able picture. The crab-baskets and the whole of the 
foreground were added from a second negative. 

Fig. 6 contains splendid material for a picture, yet is 
a frightful example of what not to do, showing that 
nature without art is not enough. The light is behind 
the camera, making the landscape as flat as the pro- 
verbial pancake. The figure, well posed, so that there 
should be no room for fault on that score, is in pictorially 
the worst place, but naturally, for fishing purposes, the 
best. It is not onh^ exactly midway between the sides, 
but also between the horizon and the base line. There 
is no atmosphere and no sky ; the photographic technics 
would, I believe, be considered perfect ; the image is 
very sharp and ver}^ clean. Let me be allowed to hope 
that none of my readers ever did an3^thing, however tech- 
nically commendable, so ver}^ bad, so very ** natural.'' 


Chapter V 


TUDY of the Sk}' naturally follows 
that of P'oregrounds, and this sub- 
ject has also been treated by Mr. 
H. P, Robinson in a most exhaust- 
ive and satisfactory manner. We 
therefore reprint his article in full 
as it appeared in Thk Photik;r.\i'hic 
Temks, with his own appropriate il- 

For the purpose of this article, 
writes Mr. Robinson, 1 am afraid i 
shall have to be uncomplimentary, where 1 should prefer 
to praise, but I do not see how to avoid the disagreeable 
necessity if I am to teach a lesson of any value, and I 
suppose we all put the advance of our art before any 
other consideration whatever. 

The weak point, then, in American landscape pho- 
tography, if one may judge by the specimens that come 
over the water as illustrations in photographic journals 
and magazines (which it is fair to assume are the best 
attainable) is undoubtedly the sky. 

The subjects of the photographs from which these 


reproductions are made are often well selected, and are 

of interestinjr 
scenes, but they 
seldom present 
more than the 
raw facts of nat- 
ure, without any 
of that delightful 
harmony of tones 
and gradations 
Fu:. 1 we find in modern 

photographs by those who have studied nature and repre- 
sent her as she appears to the e3'e of the artist rather 
than to the lens of the scientist. The climate, possibly, 
may have something to do with this (for it is not every 
country that enjoys such a changeable and artistic atmos- 
phere as we have 
in England) but 
not altogether, 
for we have some 
fine instances 
to the contrary. 
In the London 
salon recently we 
had a photograph 

by Mr. Eicke- ^,„. ^ 

meyer, "Sweet Home," done, I believe, in America, that 

equaled anything that has been produced in delicacy and 
observation of subtle gradation. In London its chances 
of being properly seen were seriously endangered by 
being sent to two exhibitions at the same time— which 
sounds paradoxical, but is true. Fancy this picture with 
a white sky ! The result would be another specimen of 
rawness and crudity of which we have already far too 
many. I hope I may be forgiven for saying that there is 
danger to the art 
in showing and 
praising speci- 
mens of imma- 
ture photogra- 
phy. The prom- 
inence given 
them by repro- 
duction invests 

them with a fie- p,^ ^ 

ticious value which is misleading, for young beginners 
cannot help taking them for examples to follow, instead 
of to be avoided. 

Yet many a crude result may be turned into a suc- 
cess if the operator would try to understand, and act on 
the knowledge, that in almost every case a raw print of 
a raw negative is not fit to show as an example of what 
can be done to represent beautiful nature by our art, and 
if the artist would begin where the chemist left off, or, 


rather, would do more toward depicting the beauties he 
ought to see in nature, but are usually unnoticed by the 
unsympathetic camera ; if the photographer would edu- 
cate his eye to see nature as it is, and not be so ready to 
believe what the scientific photographer represents as 
facts, we should soon discover a vast improvement in 
landscape photography. This matter of the sky is a case 
in point. The plain, unblushing photograph, the ma- 
chine-made article, usually represents an ordinary land- 
scape as being backed by a plain white paper sky, and I 
am not sure that reproduction does not sometimes in- 
tensify this effect. Now, white paper represents nothing 
in this world except a plain space of unsuggestive blank- 
ness, and, on the other hand, not one inch of the space it 
is supposed to represent in a photograph is without tone 
and gradation. I do not suggest that the sky is never 
one even tone all over, but in that state it is seldom of 
much use to the artist, and it is tone — not white paper. 
A plain blue sky, without cloud, is perfectly gradated 
from the deep blue of the zenith down to the pale horizon. 
The sk)^ is the one thing that gives expression to 
nature. It would be a monotonous world without the 
smiles and frowns of the sky. The artistic possibilities 
of the clouds are infinite. It is the most valuable ele- 
ment to the photographer ; it is the one department of 
nature which lends itself to the landscape artist, and he 
neglects it. With a properly selected sky he can alter his 


composition and rule his chiaroscuro. In short, it is one 
of the most potent elements to aid him in rescuing his 
art from the machine. 

Given the necessity of a sky, then science interferes. 
The photographer is usually deluded into endeavoring to 
discover some method of taking the sky with the land- 
scape, and almost certainly gets into a semi-scientific 
state of mind which takes more pleasure in conquering a 
useless chemical 
difficulty than 
in obtaining a 
splendid effect 
with ease that 
would give pleas- 
ure to the world. 
Experiment for 
experi ment's 
sake is the en- 
chanted forest in '"^ ■* 
which many who have grown up into good photographers 
get mazed and lost. 

There are, of course, occasions when it would be 
advantageous to secure the sky with the landscape on one 
plate, but they depend upon as many t/s as Touchstone's, 
//"the lines of the sky compose well with the ground ; if 
some other arrangement would not be more conducive to 
pictorial effect ; (/ the sky will come as strong as it is in 


nature ; i/\\. can be got without sacrificing the landscape, 
and a great many other "ifs," then the sky would be 

better taken on 
the same plate as 
the ground, but 
not otherwise. 

Every land- 
scape photogra- 
pher who would 
represent nature 
truly, should 
„,. 5 make a collec- 

tion of sky negatives for future use, always noting the 
time of day and of the year, the direction and altitude of 
the sun, and the aspects of nature at the time each sky 
negative is taken. Every variety of effect should be 
secured, and the attention should not be entirely confined 
to the grandest effects. 

To save those who may be tempted out of the straight 
path toward art by technical diversions. I will give a lull 
and complete formula, which will not require any modifi- 
cation whatever, for taking skies, so plain and clear 
that it should prevent even the weakest photographer 
from having any frivolous thoughts toward chemical 

Any slow plates, isochromatic preferred. 
Shutter exposure. 


Pyro and ammonia developer. Formula to be found 
on any packet of plates. 

Patience in developing. 

The result should be clean, thin negatives, nearly 
clear in the cloud shadows. 

The method of using a sky negative is so well known 
as to scarcely bear repetition. When a print is taken 
the place where the sky ought to be will be white, or if it 
prints gray the space may be stopped out with black 
varnish on the back of the plate. Now take a suitable 
cloud negative, place it in the printing frame, and adjust 
the print on it so that the sky shall print in the proper 
place. When exposed to the light the landscape portion 
should be covered with a black cloth or other suitable 
mask. Success depends on the care and skill in which 
any effect of the 

join is hidden , 

and truth to nat- 
ure is observed. 
There should 
not be a bit of 
plain white any- 
where about a 
photograph, ex- 
cept, perhaps, in p,,,. t 
minute quantity, such as in a figure. There is no such 
thing in nature. Even in a woody scene, where very 


little sky shows through the trees, as in Fig. i, the treat- 
ment of the sky makes all the diflference between a good 
picture and an ordinary photograph. It will be noticed 
in this illustration that the strength of the clouds is very 
slight, but the various gradations harmonize the differ- 
ent forms and help to concentrate the light. A plain 
white sky would have grinned through the trees. To 
make the picture complete there ought to be a pictur- 
esque figure on the path. 

Although there may be only a small portion of sk}^ 
peeping through a corner it would not be wise to neglect 
it. Fig. 2 is an example of this. If the sky had been left 
blank the light and shade and composition would have 
tumbled to pieces. The same vcia,y be said of Fig. 3, 
where the sky and figures make a picture out of very 
simple materials. 

Fig. 4 is an example in which the sky forms an im- 
portant part of the composition. Repetition of a light or 
form, but not of the same strength as the principal, is a 
useful device in art. In this case the sk}'' was selected 
because the general effect of the clouds echoed the forms 
of the sheep. I know that this is sometimes called con- 
ventional, or fancy composition, but I also know that it 
produces a pleasing effect on the ordinary spectator with- 
out their knowing exactly how it is done. 

Fig. 5 shows how breadth may be attained by a judi- 
cious use of clouds, also how a picture may be made out 


of scarcely any materials at all. Fig. 6 is an example of 
an extension of the use of combination printing, which, 
perhaps, takes it out of the region of the clouds, for it 
includes the sea on the same plate as the sky, with the 
figures and foreground on another plate. 

In order to show that this attention to the sky is not 
a new "fad" I select old pictures as illustrations. Fig- 
ures I, 3. 4, and 5 were done in 1869 on wet collodion; 
2 and 6 on the earliest gelatine plates I ever used. 

I should add that if the student cares to make photo- 
graphing of the skj' of real interest he will study the 
nature and forms of the clouds. 

The best chart of the sky, showing the forms, heights 
and names of clouds that I know, is the frontispiece to 
Mr. Richard Inwards' most entertaining volume on 
" Weather Lore." 


Chapter VI 


In treating the subject of ** Open-Air'' 
Portraits in the American Annual of 
Photography for 1889, Mr. John Bart- 
lett relates an anecdote of Her Majesty 
Queen Elizabeth of England, who de- 
A GUTACH MEETING Hianded, it was said, to be painted as 

if in an open garden. It seems that none of the painters 
of her day could paint objects as seen out of doors, and 
so they painted the poor queen without any shadow at 
all. Doubtless she was not slow in giving her opinion of 
their work, and in her peculiar expressive way, too. 

Had good Queen Bess lived a little later she would 
have blessed Gainsborough and De Hooge for their skill in 
giving to her portrait the appearance of out-door freshness. 
Out-door portraiture is the besetting sin of the ama- 
teur, and his futile attempts at a counterfeit presentment 
of the human face divine often delight the professional. 
Nevertheless, the freshness and naturalness of the work 
he sometimes produces, might well cause the professional 
to hide his diminished head with shame for the leaded 
and smoothed-out caricatures which are blazoned forth 
as artistic portraits. 



A glass house, after all, is merely a protection against 
the wind and rain. The amateur who aspires to portrait- 
ure need not sigh because he is not favored with a certain 
tilt ot roof v/hen he has the broad expanse of heaven for 
his skylight. All that he needs is good judgment and a 
knowledge of what good lighting of a face consists in. 


Unless one can judge from the image focused upon 
the ground-glass of the camera whether the distribution 
of light and shade is harmonious, he cannot hope, unless 
by accident, to get a pleasinjj result, at least not such as 
would be rewarded by an embrace from any fair subject. 

The picture upon the glass screen, to an inexperienced 
eye, does look beautiful. The rich modulations of color 


in the human face completely mask to the untrained 
vision the abrupt shadows which the remorseless film 
relentlessly registers. 

One must divorce color from the object and look only 
for the values, that is the relative tone or darkness, of 
one part with another, and the blending of the shadows 
into one another. 

To place a sitter directly in a broad light and expect 
to get fine gradations, or in fact any result which 
looks like a human face, is the height of photographic 
presumption. There are certain conditions absolutely 

If possible select a corner in your )^ard where two 
walls join at an angle. It is immaterial in what di- 
rection the walls stand, so that a contrast of light and 
shade is secured. 

There should be a principal light coming in the en- 
closure at an angle of about 45 degs. Of course we do 
not mean by the downcast light, sunlight, but a soft, 
diffused light from a bright sky. 

The chief defect in amateur portraits made out of 
doors is due to a predominance of top light, which 
causes heav)?- shadows under the eyes and gives a general 
woe-begone expression to the countenance. 

The top light should be shut off as much as possible 
by means of a canopy or roof. Generally sufficient re- 
flection from the top will be obtained to serve as a high 



light, provided the roof of the canopy is not too low. If 
any additional top light is needed, a sheet of white paper 
or muslin tacked on the top will increase the illumination. 
Care, too, must be taken not to have the side light 
too strong. 



Of course, reflectors are necessary to illuminate the 
shadow side of the face. Have them as large as the di- 
mensions of the enclosure will allow, and place them at 
some distance from the sitter. They ma)^ be of white 
paper or muslin. Ordinary newspaper answers well as 
a reflecting surface. 

The character of the background depends much upon 
the taste of the photographer. 

For single heads a plain background should always 
be used, but for groups individual fancy may be allowed 
more play. On general principles the background should 
not be too obtrusive. 

A three-quarter face is the best position for the con- 
ditions we have arranged. The face should be turned 
towards the principal light so that the highest light may 
strike the forehead and along the nose. 

If the figure is properly illuminated less time will 
be needed with a diffused light than with a compara- 
tively strong light when the subject is improperly illumi- 

In an improperly illuminated head the high light 
receives the allopathic dose while the shadows get only 
the homeopathic treatment. 

We have found the best time of day for taking 
out-door portraits to be either in the morning or in the 
evening, at a time when the sun is considerably above 
the horizon to brightl}^ illuminate the sky, but itself com- 



pletely hid by the surrounding buildings and so pre- 
vented from entering our little enclosure. 

Suppose, for instance, the sun to be in the southwest, 
as it usually is towards evening during the months of the 


year when out-door portraits are taken, and suppose the 
background wall to be towards the north, the shadow side 
of the face towards the east, the illuminated side towards 
the southwest. 

If we place our camera at the south or southwest, 
according to the position of the face we wish to take, we 
shall have the greater part of the face in full light and 
the less portion in shadow. 

This style of illumination is very pleasing to the 
artist, notwithstanding the professional prefers to light 
up the small side of the face, although the photograph 
does look flat. 

When these arrangements are complete, wait until 
the southwest sun drops behind the houses, then make 
your exposure and you will find that the resulting photo- 
graph will present a nice roundness and a rich gradation 
of shadows which rarely needs any interference of the 
retoucher s pencil. 

The operating may continue until the light becomes 
too feeble to reflect from the side screen upon the shadow 
side of the face. 

It may be that everyone cannot secure the arrange- 
ments suggested. The conditions must then be imitated 
as closely as possible by building up a structure and sur- 
rounding it with screens to cut off the direct rays of the 
sun. The back wall of the structure should be rather high 
so as to secure the lens from any extraneous light. The 



frame-work of the enclosure should be constructed in 
such a manner that it may be placed in a position to 
obtain a brightly lighted side and a shadowed side. It 

"WhsL iiyour ForlUDC, mr preltf maid?" By Major R. H. BuinvH 

should also be of sufficient firmness to withstand ordinary 

As the face is directed toward the light, the eyes 
should be allowed to rest upon some dark object of suffi- 
cient size, otherwise the strong light, by causing the 
pupils of the eyes to contract, will give an unpleasant 
expression to the face, besides there is danger of a frown 
or squint. Blue and other light colored eyes require 
special care in this respect. 

The great danger in this latter kind of out-door pic- 


tures is from the entrance of bright light by retiection or 
otherwise into the lens, causing fog or flare. 

A large cone, blackened inside, placed over the lens 
is recommended. It is useful if a pneumatic shutter is 
used, but rather inconvenient if one is obliged to remove 
the cap before making the exposure. 

In Grouping, Mr. R. E. M. Bain, a skilful amateur 
photographer of St. Louis, has had much success. He 
tells of his methods in a short article also contributed 
to The Amkrran A\NUAi, ok Piiotocraphv. The operator 

" Nobexly axrA you. sir.'" she said. 

must bear in mind, he says, that the combination is here 

the end to be sought, and that however well a figure 

posed here, and two or three there, might look, by them- 



selves, the result will prove a lamentable failure, if they 
do not harmonize. It is usually best for the photogra- 
pher to pose the group without the assistance of others. 

A combination 
of ideas on the 
subject generally 
culminates in a 
combination of 
results, more 
startling than 
artistic. A suit- 
able background 
is very hard to 

THE SHEPHERD By H. K. Nov. ^^^ ^hcn Want- 

ed. One of trees, with sunlight percolating through, 
is very tempting but usually very poor, the sunlight 
giving strong, hard lights, making the faces look black 
by contrast. 

A good ground is a cliff or bluff, or a somewhat 
dense growth of foliage. The former usually admits of 
a greater variety in posing and offers the advantage of 
allowing those in the rear to show to equal advantage 
with those in the foreground. It is best not to have sky, 
or strong bright lights of any kind as a background, if 
they can be avoided, as the halation thus produced will 
generally mar an otherwise good picture. When it can 
be so placed, the camera should face the sun rather than 


have the subject to do so. Strong sunlight is a disad- 
vantage in out-of-door portrait or group work. The 
subjects should be arranged in eas}^ natural attitudes, 
and the whole, when 
possible, divided into 
smaller groups, each of 
which is independent of 
the other, yet forming 
together a harmonious 
effect. Give each of the 
groups a line of thought 
and action which will 
impress itself on their 
minds and lead them 
not to think that they 
are being photographed, 
but rather that they are 
acting a part. This feeling once impressed, the balance 
of the work is rendered much easier. As an instance, if 
it is desired to make a group of tennis players in costume 
with spectators and friends, arrange the principal per- 
formers toward the center, one, with the assistance of 
some others, explaining the method of using the racquet, 
a few in easy attitudes listening. To the right and left 
of the main group are some lolling on the grass, others 
seated on camp stools in appropriate positions. The im- 
mediate foreground supplied with various accessories of 



the game. The picture can in this way be easilj' com- 
posed in a pyramidal or other form, and while all have an 
easy, graceful pose, not one of the party needs stare at 
the lens. Explain to each his particular part in the tab- 
leau and impress the idea that upon each one is devolved 
the responsibility for the result. Endeavor to keep your 
subjects in sympathy with you, feeling the same desire 
to obtain a creditable picture that you have. 

Cbapter vri 


whom the editor of this book is 
indebted for many of its most at- 
tractive illustrations, has treated 
this subject most intelligently and 
completely in the American An- 
nual OF Peiotoc.raphy for 1897. 
The illustrations are also b3' Mr. 
w.NTM, Fifth avk:.< e By A. s. StiegHtz. Hc Say s : Photogfaphy 
as a fad is well nigh on its last legs, thanks principally to 
the bicycle craze. Those seriously interested in its ad- 
vancement do not look upon this state of affairs as a 
misfortune, but as a disguised blessing, inasmucli as pho- 
tography had been classed as a sport by nearly all of 
those who deserted its ranks and fled to the present idol, 
the bicycle. The only persons who seem to look upon this 
turn of affairs as entirely unwelcome are those engaged in 
manufacturing and selling photographic goods. It was. 
undoubtedly, due to the hand camera that photography 
became so generally popular a few years ago. Every 
Tom, Dick and Harry could, without trouble, learn how 


to get something or other on a sensitive plate, and this 
is what the public wanted — no work and lots of fun. 

Thanks to the ef- 
forts of these people 
hand camera and 
bad work became 
synonymous. The 
climax was reached 
when an enterpris- 
ing firm flooded the 
market with a very 
ingenious hand cam- 

A BLOCKADE. NEW YORK By A. S. g j. ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ j^. 

nouncement, " You press the button, and we do the rest." 
This was the beginning of the ' ' photograph in g-by-t he- 
yard " era, and the ranks 
of enthusiastic button 
pressers were enlarged 
to enormous dimensions. 
The hand camera ruled 

Originally known un- 
der the odious name of 
"Detective," necessarily 
insinuating the owner to 
be somewhat of a sneak, 
the hand camera was in wash-day, venice By a. s. 


very bad repute with all the champions of the tripod. 
They looked upon the small instrument, innocent enough 
in itself, but terrible in the hands of the unknowing, as a 
mere toy, good for the purposes of the globe trotter, who 
wished to jot down photographic notes as he passed 
along his journey, but in no way 
do SI 

But in the past year or two all this has been changed. 
There are manj' who claim that for just the most serious 
work the hand camera is not only excellently adapted, 
but that without it the pictorial photographer is sadly 

The writer is amongst the advocates who cannot too 

strongly recommend the trial of the hand camera for this 

class of photography. He frankly confesses that for 

many years he belonged to that class which opposed its 



use for picture making. This was due to a prejudice 
which found its cause in the fact that the impression had 

been given him that 
for hand camera ex- 
posures strong sun- 
light was sine qua 
non. The manufac- 
turer is chietiy to be 
blamed for this false 
impression, as it was 
he who put up the 
uniform rule that the 
camera should be 
held in such a posi- 
tion that the sun- 
"'^"'^"^'■''^ ^>-*^ light comes from 

over one of the shoulders, in order to insure such lighting 
as to fully expose the plate. In short, the manufacturer 
himself did not realize the possibilities of his own ware 
and invention. 

In preparing for hand camera work, the choice of the 
instrument is of vital importance. Upon this subject 
that able artist, J. Craig Annan, of Glasgow, who does 
much of his work with the hand camera, says : " Having 
secured a light-tight camera and suitable lens, there is no 
more important quality than ease in mechanical working. 
The adjustments ought to be so simple that the operator 


ma}'^ be able to bring it from his satchel and get it in 
order for making an exposure without a conscious 
thought. Each worker will have his own idea as to 
which style of camera comes nearest to perfection in 
this respect, and having made his choice he should study 
to become so intimate with it that it will become a second 
nature with his hands to prepare the camera while his 
mind and eyes are fulh' occupied with the subject be- 
fore him." 

To this let me add, that whatever camera may "be 
chosen let it be waterproof, so as to permit photograph- 
ing in rain or shine without damage to the box. The 
writer does not approve of 
complicated mechan 
they are sure to ge 
order at important rr 
thus causing cons 
unnecessary sweari 
often the loss of a 
opportunity. My oi 
era is of the sim- 
plest pattern and 
has never left me 
in the lurch, al- 
though it has had 
some very tough 

handling in wind a bit near mvnich By a. s, 



and storm. The reliability of the shutter is of greater 
importance than its speed. As race-horse scenes, express 
trains, etc., are rarely wanted in pictures, a shutter work- 
ing at a speed of one-fourth to one twenty-fifth of a 
second will answer all purposes. Microscopic sharpness 
is of no pictorial value. A little blur in a moving subject 
will often aid in giving the impression of action and 

As for plates, use the fastest you can can get. They 
cannot be too fast. Do not stop down your lens except 
at the seashore, and set 3'our shutter at as slow speed as 
the subject will permit. This will ensure a fully ex- 
posed plate. Under exposures are best relegated to the 
ash-barrel, as they 
are useless for pic- 
torial work. 

The one quality 
absolutely necessary 
for success in hand 
camera work is Pa- 

This is really the 
keynote to the whole 
matter. It is amus- 
A VENETIAN WELL By A. s. iHg to watch thc ma- 

jority of hand camera workers shooting off a ton of plates 
helter-skelter, taking their chances as to the ultimate 


result. Once in a while these people make a hit, and it 
is due to this cause that many pictures produced by means 
of tl ikes. 

At tl 




that i 


is not everything, after all. -* Venetian bit By a. s. 

In order to obtain pictures by means of the hand 
camera it is well to choose your subject, regardless of 
figures, and carefully study the lines and lighting. After 
having determined upon these watch the passing figures 
and await the moment in which everything is in balance; 
that is, satisfies your ej-e. This often means hours of 
patient waiting. My picture, "Winter, Fifth Avenue," 
is the result of a three hours' stand during a fierce 
snow-storm on February 22d, 1893, awaiting the proper 


moment. My patience was duly rewarded. Of course. 

the result contained an element of chance, as I might 

have stood there for hours without succeeding in getting 

the I 




it to some of my colleagues. They smiled and advised 
me to '"throw away such rot." " Why, it isn't even sharp, 
and he wants to use it for an enlargement!" Such were 
the remarks made about what I knew was a piece of work 


quite out of the ordinary, in that it was the first attempt 
at picture making with the hand camera in such adverse 
and trying circumstances from a photographic point of 
view. Some time later the laugh was on the other side, 
for when the finished picture was shown to these same 
gentlemen it proved to them conclusively that there was 
other photographic work open to them during the "bad 


season" than that so fully set forth in the photographic 
journals under the heading. "Work for the Winter 
Months." This incident also goes to prove that the 
making of the negative alone is not the making of the 
picture. My hand camera negatives are all made with 
the express purpose of enlargement, and it is but rarely 
that I use more than part of the original "shot." 


Most of my successful work of late has been pro- 
duced by this method. My experience has taught me 
that the prints from the direct negatives have but little 
value as such. 

The hand camera has come to stay — its importance 
is acknowledged. 

A word to the wise is sufficient. 


Chapter Vlll 


HIS subject naturally follows the preced- 
ing ; in fact, both are properly closely 
allied, for Hand Camera Work is usually 
instantaneous. Mr. Walter E. Wood- 
bury, editor of The Photographic Times, 
has written a most instructive editorial 
on this subject for his magazine which 
I here reproduce. The illustrations are 

• • • 

by various workers in this fascinating 
branch of photography. 

As a rule, writes Mr. Woodbury, when an amateur is 
initiated into the mysteries of the photographic art, he is 
seized with two desires : to make portraits of all his rela- 
tives and to photograph express trains going at the rate 
of 60 miles an hour and other rapidl}'^ moving objects. 

Usually his attempts at home portraiture are quickly 
blighted by the candid criticisms of the sufferers who 
object to being caricatured, so that he turns to instan- 
taneous photography for his next field of work. 

Now, portraiture and the photographs of rapidly mov- 
ing objects are, perhaps, the two most difficult branches. 



It is with the latter we intend to deal. No one should 
attempt this kind of work unless — First, he has the most 
rapid plates, and knows how to use them, for it must be 
remembered that the faster the plates the more difficult 
they are to work with. Secondly, he must have a lens 
which gives a well defined picture with a large aperture. 
Lastly, he must possess an efficient shutter, by means of 
which a very rapid exposure can be given. 

The reason wh}^ there is a so much greater per- 
centage of failures among hand camera workers than 
with other photographers is no doubt due to want of 
thought when employing this instrument. Instantan- 
eous exposures are given when photographing subjects 
which a little thought would have shown to have required 
several seconds. Haphazard photography rarely gives a 
good result. In instantaneous photography, unless we 
want a whole waste box full of failures, we must study the 
necessary conditions, and whether they are suitable or 
not. We have already stated what is necessary in the 
way of apparatus for this kind of work. The next points 
to be considered are what to take and how to take it. 

Position is everj^thing in this class of work; and many 
make the mistake of getting too near the moving object. 
If we study a table such as the one in the American 
Annual of Photociraphy, which gives us the displacement 
of a moving object on the ground glass, we shall see 
that the greater the distance the object is away from us 



the more latitude we have in exposure, always bearing in 
mind that we must give the fullest exposure possible to 
obtain a sharp image ; it will be seen how important it is 
to retire to a considerable distance. If a large image is 
required it is better by far to enlarge afterward, a sharper 
'■'^'^""^ being thus obtained, 
direction in which the 
iject is moving has also 
a most important influ- 
ence. When traveling 
broadside to the cam- 
era we get the maxi- 
mum ; when moving 
directly toward it, the 
minimum. If at an 
angle of 45 degrees, 
we could give with 
safety double the ex- 
posure to that required 
' the maximum move- 
t and still secure a sharp 
iiiidg^i. For express trains and 
similar objects In motion this is perhaps the best 

In photographing other subjects, for instance, horses 
galloping, etc., it must be remembered that it is not the 
distance traveled by the horse that we must take into 



consideration— it is the movement of its legs, principally 
the hoofs. In a carriage it is the wheels, and in the 
wheels the top spokes are, as we know, traveling faster 
than the bottom ones. 

The last but by no means the least important con- 
sideration is the light. Attempts at very rapid photog- 
raphy made in anything but a very bright, actinic light 
will never result in anything but failures. 

The immense strides that have recentlv been made 
in instantaneous photography, owing chiefly to the ad- 
vent of the dry-plate process, have caused photography 
to become useful to almost everv branch of science. 

To Marcy, Muybridge and Anschiitz we are greatl)^ 
indebted for the advance made in instantaneous photog- 
raphy. These gentlemen have succeeded in photograph- 
ing moving objects hitherto considered impossible to be 
photographed. Galloping horses, swift-flying birds, and 
even bullets and cannon-balls projected from guns have 
been successfully photographed, showing even the little 
head of air driven along in front of the bullet. 

Both Muybridge and Anschiitz have also succeeded 
in making series of twenty-four or more photographs of a 
horse during the time it makes a single leap, and thus 
illustrate its every movement. The value of these and 
other possibilities with the camera for artists cannot be 
overestimated. Its aid to meteorologists in photograph- 
ing the lightning, to astronomers in stellar, lunar, and 




solar photography, and to all other sciences would re- 
quire a work as large as this to describe. 

For the making of instantaneous pictures a large 
number of suitable cameras have been devised. In most 
of these the lens is a ver}^ rapid one, and in some cases so 
arranged that all objects beyond a certain distance are in 
focus. With an instantaneous camera a secondary image 
is necessar)^ so that the right second can be judged for 
making the exposure. This is usually produced by a 
** finder," In making instantaneous exposures the follow- 
ing tables will be useful : 

Approximate distance 
per second. 

A man walking 3 miles per hour moves 4^ feet per second. 

A man walking 4 miles per hour moves 6 

A vessel traveling at 9 knots per hour moves 15 

A vessel traveling at 12 knots per hour moves 19 

A vessel traveling at 17 knots per hour moves 28 

A torpedo boat traveling at 20 knots per hour moves 35 

A trotting horse 36 

A galloping horse (1,000 yards per minute) 50 

An express train traveling at 38 miles an hour 59 

Flight of a pigeon or falcon 61 

Waves during a storm 65 

Express train (60 miles an hour) 88 

Flight of the swiftest bird 294 

A cannon ball i ,625 

An object moving — 

1 mile per hour moves i J^ feet per second. 

2 • » 3 



• • • • • 


8 - - 12 

9 • • 13 

10 " " \^% 

11 - » 15 

12 » " 11% 


«• » 

" n 

w w 

» n 

n ti 


If •> 

p n 

n H 


1 5 miles per hour moves 22 feet per second. 

20 " " 29 » ' 

25 " - 37 

30 • • 44 

35 ' - 51 

40 - - 59 

45 p «f 66 

50 " ' 73 

55 • - So 

60 • ' 88 

75 ' ' "lo 

100 ' ' 147 • " 

125 " • - 183 ff » 

1 50 * ' 220 ' ' 

200 » " 257 " o 

With these tables it will be very easy to find the dis- 
tance that the image of the object will move on the 
ground glass screen of the camera. To do this, multiply 
the focus of the lens in inches by the distance moved by 
the object in the second, and divide the result by the dis- 
tance of the object in inches. 

Example, find the movement of the image of an ob- 
ject moving 50 miles per hour at'a distance of 100 yards 
with a lens 9 inch focus. 

g X 876 = 7,884 + 3,600 = 2^ inches per second. 

We must also find out the speed of the shutter re- 
quired to take the object in motion, so that it will appear 
as sharply defined as possible under the circumstances. 
To do this the circle of confusion must not exceed rWh 
of an inch in diameter. We therefore divide the distance 
of the object by the focus of lens multiplied by 100, and 
then divide the rapidity of the object in inches per sec- 
ond by the result obtained. This will give the longest 



exposure permissible in the fraction of a second. For 
example, we require to know the speed of a shutter nec- 
essary to photograph an express train traveling at the 
rate of 50 miles per hour at a distance of 50 yards with an 
8^-inch focus lens. 

The train moves 876 inches per second. 

1.800 distance in inches -i- (SJ x loo) = i,Soo -t- 850 = f?. 
S76 X [7 

876 speed i>f object per sec. -^ 55 = = 413 = ,[( sec. 


Given the rapidity of the shutter, and the speed of 
the moving object, we require to find the distance from 
the object the camera should be placed to give a circle of 
confusion less than tU of 
an inch. Multiply loo 
times the focus of the 
lens by the space through 
which the object would 
pass during the exposure, 
and the result obtained 
will be the nearest pos- 
sible distance between 
the object and the cam- 
era. For example, we 
have a shutter working 
at one-fiftieth of a sec- 
ond, and the object to be 
photographed moves at 
the rate of 50 miles per hour. How near can a camera 


fitted with a lens of 8j4-inch focus be placed to the 
moving object? 

Object moving 50 miles per hour moves per second 
876 inches, and in the one-fiftieth part of a second it 
moves 17-52 inches, so that — 

S X I7-5J = B.5 X 100 X 17-52 - 14.892 inches =: 413 yards. 

Instantaneous photography can only be successfully 
performed in very bright actinic light, and should never 
be attempted on dull days, as under-exposure will be the 
inevitable result. In developing it is necessary to em- 
ploy a strong developer to bring out the detail. Some 
operators make use of an accelerator for this purpose, but 
it is not to be recommended ; the simplest is a few drops 
of hyposulphite solution added to about lo ounces of 
water. In this the plate is bathed for a few seconds 
previous to development. 


Chapter IX 


MANY amateur photogra- 
phers seem to consider the 
warm months as the best, 
if not the only, time in 
which to pursue their fa- 
vorite pastime. This is 
especiall}' true of the be- 
ginner, who usually pur- 
chases his camera in the 
early summer, and makes 
his first experiments with 
it during the annual out- 
ing of his vacation. But those who put their cameras 
away with the approach of cold weather lose some of the 
finest opportunities of the year for making artistic land- 
scape pictures. 

Nothing can be more attractive than the snow-cov- 
ered landscape, with the trees ice-coated or bare, as the 
case may be. and with glittering whiteness at every 
hand. It requires experienced judgment, to be sure, to 
reproduce such a charming scene satisfactorily with the 


camera, but it can be done when care and experience are 
brought to the pleasant task. 

There are two general classes of snow scenes ; the 
first, in which everything is completely enveloped in 
white, and the second, in which strong contrasts are pre- 
sented by the bare, black trunks of leafless trees and the 
glittering white of the snow on the ground. In the first 


class, trees, bushes, and everything glisten with ice, and 
the fields sparkle beneath the snow. There are no con- 
trasts, only a mass of brightness, glitter and glare. Here 
the difficulty is to give form and outline to the scene, 
gradation and half-tone in the lights and shadows. It 
must have this in order to be satisfactory. 

In order to photograph such a scene we must select 


the time of day when the sun is at one side of our cam- 
era, and a little behind it. This may be in the early 
morning or the afternoon, depending, of course, on the 
point of view we have chosen for our camera. The pic- 
ture may be selec- 
ted on one day, and 
the light noted. On 
another day at the 
proper time we re- 
turn to the spot 
with our camera and 
make the exposure. 
In the earl)' morn- 
ing or late in the 
afternoon the shad- 
ows prevail, if at 
all, lying across the 
snow in long, soft 
masses of gloom, 
giving contrast to 
the view and some- 

A COUNTRY LANK IN WINTER By A. H, Dkksskv what SUbdulug the 

light, and it is only at such a time that such a snow scene 
can be photographed. The exposure should be moderate, 
and the development rather brisk in order to bring out 
the proper contrast. 

Our second illustration is from a photograph tj'pical 




of this class of pictures, though in the reproduction the 
delicate frostwork which covered the trees and made 
them glisten in the sun is lost, so that a greater contrast 
is shown in the illustration than was really present in the 
original picture in nature. Of course the effort was to 
produce contrast in this instance, as it was to overcome 
contrast in the third illustration, for the tendency in the 
first case was toward flatness and lack of detail, while in 
the second case it was exactly the reverse. The photog- 
rapher must regulate his lighting, exposure, and develop- 
ment so as to offset and overcome the natural tendency 
of the subject. 

The second, and perhaps the larger, class of snow 
scenes is quite different from that we have been consider- 
ing, and as a con- 
sequence, must, of 
course, be photo- 
graphed different- 
ly. In it we have 
pictures of the 
greatest contrast 
—dazzling whites 
and densest blacks: 
a hill covered with 

FROST I.ADEN By K,x..u S.., ..,m. gHUering SUOW, 

lined on its summit with the darkest pines ; and similar 
pictures. Our third illustration is typical of this class. 



The question now is to overcome contrast and give soft- 
ness to our photographs. As before the light must be 
subdued, and the exposures are either made early in the 
morning or late in the afternoon as before, and overcast 
days are employed as far as possible. The sun must illu- 
minate the picture from behind the lens or a little to one 
side as in the other class ; but the exposure must be ample 
in order to provide for a ver}^ slow development. Ortho- 

chromatic plates are especially desirable for this class of 
work, as they harmonize the contrasting dark greens and 
browns with the whiteness of the snow, and so obtain a 
more natural and pleasing effect in the finished photo- 
graph. Non-halation plates also can be used here to 
great advantage, requiring, as they do. longer exposure, 
and absolutely preventing halation. 


In the development of snow pictures there is room for 
the exercise of the greatest skill. When the exposure has 
been short, as in the case ot the first class of snow scenes 
mentioned, the developer must be of full strength in 
order to bring out all the contrast possible. The pyro 
and potash developer as prepared for instantaneous ex- 
posures will be found to work well with these briefly 
timed snow pictures. For developing amply exposed 
plates on subjects too full for contrast, a milder developer 
should be used. I prefer to reduce the pyro and potash 
developer to at least one-third of its normal strength b)^ 
means of water, and avoid altogether the use of bromide. 
When a restrainer is necessarj^ use citrate of borax. Be- 
gin development slowly and strengthen the solution as 
the image grows. 

The fixing, washing, and subsequent processes differ, 
of course, in no way from those usually emploj'^ed ; but 
in toning and mounting snow scenes there is fine oppor- 
tunit)^ for the display of taste. 

Do not tone a winter picture to a warm brown and 
mount on a chocolate or similarly tinted card. Let the 
toning be carried to cold blacks and whites, and mount 
on white or pearl card boards. Bromide paper yields 
peculiarly appropriate effects from winter negatives, and 
the platinotype ma}^ also be employed with good results. 
Ferro prussiate or **blue" paper is also suitable for this 
class of prints, and, when worked upon with the colors 



harmonizing with the appropriate blues and whites of the 
cyanotype, it is surprising how much artistic feeling can be 
given an ordinary blue print of a winter landscape. This 
additional work with pencil or brush must not be over- 
done, the slightest touches here and there being all that 
is necessary to bring out an effective result. Any one 
who has sufficient taste will be found to possess the ne- 
cessary skill to do all the retouching on a blue print that 
is required. These may be mounted on larger sheets of 
heavier paper, leaving broad white margins as in the 
case of water colors. Frame with simple light wood 
moulding, or preserve in portfolios or albums. Your col- 
lection of snow scenes will not be among the least inter- 
esting or attractive of the fruits of your camera. 

K ROUGH MORNING By Fhanit Hubndai. 

CDaptcr X 

OR this chapter we have a dual 
authorship. Mr. Robinson, who 
has contributed two or three of the 
previous chapters of this book, 
treats the subject from the En- 
j^lish point of view, with illustra- 
tions from his own camera; while 
Doctor John M. Bemis, an Ameri- 
can amateur, writes, of course, 
from the American standpoint. 
Let us read first what Mr. Robinson has to say : 

Love of the sea is the heritage of every man of En- 
glish descent, and knowledge of it in all its wonderful 
effects grows yearly more and more among all classes. 
Each year the sea takes increasing hold of our painters, 
and pictures of the sea cover more space on the walls of 
our exhibition galleries, but there is still room for the 
great photographer who would make the sea his own ; 
there is still room for photographs in which we can feel 
the sensation of the power and glory of the ocean, the salt 
spray, the gloom, the brilliancy and the infinite movement. 


We have lately lost our greatest sea painter in 
Henry Moore, R.A. No painter ever represented the 
sea so faithfully, and yet made his picture look less like 
a colored photograph, than Moore. His work was the 
highest impressionism without the least touch of the 
eccentricity and affectation that so marred the work of 
the impressionists of a few years ago, but which is now 
disappearing. One reason why he gave us the spirit of 
the sea so faithfully was that he always painted straight 

1. HOLY LOCH By H. P. Rowkson 

from nature, and never asked photography to help him. 
He had every temptation to make use of our art. In the 
early days of photography he experimented extensively. 
For forty 5'ears he was my intimate friend, and took the 
greatest interest in photography ; yet he never used our 
art for pictorial purposes ; he took a higher view of pho- 
tography than using it as a hand-maid would imply. He 
looked upon photography in its higher phases, as a kin- 
dred art to painting, not as a mere servant or assistant of 

the painter, and took the greatest interest in our Salon, 
speaking at length in our discussions on art subjects held 
during the exhibition season. I have mentioned him 
here because his pictures seem to me to be of the kind 
one should aim to produce, simple pictures, in which in- 
cident is not the chief purpose, but giving the absolute 
expression of the sea in its many phases. 

J. MR. GOULD'S "ATLANTA' Bv H. P. RonissnN 

Not that I object to incident in a picture, but. on the 
contrary, I prefer to see some cause, beyond a mere study 
of tones, to account for the picture being painted. I 
certainly do not wish to appear to belong to those who 
parade their indifference to the quality of the thing said, 
and think only of how it is said. Let us have the best 


workmanship, certain!}', but let us bestow our workman- 
ship on worthy objects. Let us put our poem into the 
very best grammar, but let us also take care that it is a 
poem, not merely grammar. If anything must give 
way I really think I could spare the grammar rather than 
the poetry, or at least a little bit of it. Harmony, tone, 
and texture, admirable as these qualities are, are not 
incompatible with the employment of subject. The 

modern objection to incident is too often the result of 
want of thought, or lack of imagination. 

As a rule photographers are more deficient in those 
qualities which are derived from impressionism than al- 
most any other, and, asl recommended in the American 
Annual of Piiotograi-hv. should receive a good deal of 
the attention of the studious photographer. There are 
many subjects in which the incidents consist of little 




more than the harmonies presented to us by certain ef- 
fects. They are to be found, perhaps, more plentiful!}" 
at sea than anywhere, and one great recommendation 
of impressions derived from the sea is that the}^ are 
not yet hackneyed, neither, indeed, are they within the 
reach of every photographer, but it happens to some of vis. 

Besides yachts which are graceful and beautiful, 
there some more common objects of the sea not so beauti- 
ful, but more picturesque. 1 mean the old sailing ships, 
barges, colliers, and fishing boats, as well as those trading 
steamers that give off vast volumes of smoke which take 
fantastic forms and often add greatly to pictorial effect. 
These are best sought for at the mouths of great rivers. 
As I have said above, what 1 should like to see studied at 
present are the effects of sky and sea. Nos. 4 and 5 are 
examples of what i mean. Seagulls are by no means diffi- 
cult to secure, and I have man 3^ negatives of them. Nor 
is all this chance work. I had already taken a negative 
of the view off Arran, shown in No. 5, when two seagulls 
were seen making their way toward us. They were de- 
liberately waited for, and snapped as they passed, giving, 
as figures of all kinds alw^ays do when properly managed, 
much greater interest to the view as a picture. Some of 
m}^ negatives contain hundreds of gulls, but numbers do 
not always add to effect. 

Groups on board are often interesting, not that I give 
the final illustration as an interesting one. It shows part 


of the deck of the Heatherbell. on which some few pho- 
tographers ma}' recognize the present writer enjo\ang one 
of the happiest moments of his life. 


DOCTOR BEMIS writes that there is no branch of 
amateur photographic work that is undertaken 
simply for pleasure and with the anticipating of pleasing 
results to follow that can excel the taking of marine 
views —glimpses of blue salt water — where every in- 
coming wave bears on its curling crest tidings of the 
older and more pictures(iue civilizations, and every reced- 
ing one runs out to return by and by laden with historic 
folk lore. 

The position of the photographic enthusiast by the 
gently heaving sea is quieting as well as picturesque, and 


gives him plent}^ of time to look about and to absorb, if 
he be anything of a reader, some of the tales the waves 
bring him and to interpret them aright and so place him- 
self more nearly in sympathy with history and art. 

He places homely log cabins upon the shore and 
fences them in by a background of virgin forest ; he puts 
about them stout Dutch settlers from the shores of the 
Zuyder Zee- all booted and belted and hatted ; or if upon 
Cape Ann, the Mecca of marine artists, the Dutchmen re- 
solve themselves into straight laced Puritans with shorter 
belts and longer faces ; here and there a friendly Indian 
comes in fantastic garb to barter corn for the coveted 
articles of the colonists ; square-bowed, high-pooped ships 
ride at anchor upon the lazy swell, and nearer shore a 
fishing shallop glides slowly along filled with the morn- 
ing s catch of silvered fish ; the ring of the woodman's 
axe or the call to noonday meal are the only sounds that 
awake the ear, for one soon grows accustomed to the 
sea s gentle swell. 

Such day dreams tend to artistic work ; who can 
hurry with these phlegmatic people of by-gone days about 
him ? No mixed plate-holders or lost tripod screw here. 

Soon the whole aspect of the scene changes. The 
freshening breeze brings on the hurrying waves laden 
with more modern tales. The sky is overcast and hurry- 
ing clouds ^y to and fro with threatening aspect ; the 
trees on shore bend to the force of the wind, and wave 



their branches with nervous anxiety. Now is the time 
for us to hurry and with rapid fingers focus and arrange 
upon the screen the dashing spray and water washed 
rocks and catch the hurry of the elements in all their 

Subjects for marine photography abound. The peb- 
bly beach overhung with soft fleecy clouds and the lazy, 
heavily laden coaster at anchor in the middle ground ; 
the "stem and rugged rock-bound coast"; the quiet 
harbor scenes and the more quiet wharfs, seen when the 

■■TWILIGHT'' MID-OCEAN By T, Fiia\k Atkivsmn 

tide is low and the reflections long ; the fisherman hortie- 
ward bound with all sail set and filled with the summer 
breeze ; now and then the fishing schooner may be 
caught on a windy day in fall with mainsail reefed 
throwing the spray from off her bows as she leans to the 
breeze and leaves a white tumble of foam along her sides 
and far astern. 

In selecting subjects for marine views seek to repro- 
duce some of the motion of the objects about you, unless, 

. V 


of course, you are picturing the quiet wharfs or the calm 
noonday reflections when repose in man and nature 
should be as carefully studied : the slightest particle of 
spra}^ dashing over the rocks, the comb of an incoming 
wave, the white foam at the vessel's bow ; anything, 
however trifling it ma}^ seem, provided it be of that va- 
riety of motion which belongs to the sea, will give to the 
picture that peculiar charm which lovers of the ocean 
will at once discern. 

Motion, that is the sense of motion correctlv and 
spiritedh" depicted, often makes the seascape a thing of 
beaut}^ and one of which we seldom tire ; a landscape 
should show nature at rest. 

Marine negatives should always be full of pluck and 
brillianc3^ and to secure this result err rather on the side 
of slight under-exposure if err we must ; never over- 
expose, thinking to remedy the matter in development, 
for the result is flat and uninteresting in the extreme. 

Develop with pyro always, and with pyro, for this 
work, that does not contain too much sulphite of soda, 
because the slight chocolate tinge left by the pyro on a 
properly developed plate ensures us that sparkle without 
which the marine view is a failure ; for this reason, too, 
the plain hypo bath is the best ; it should be used fresh, 
if need be, for every negative, and the plate well washed 
before fixing. The prints should never be over-toned, 
and 1 think that for this work the albumen positive 

1 1 1 


often has the advantage over the colder toned bromide or 
platinotype— though bromides can readily be developed 
to exhibit a warm tone ; blue prints, if artistically made 
upon good rough drawing paper, are superb for some 
kinds of sea views. 

One thing more : Do not go to the shore for marines 
and expect to bring back all there are ; take everything 
easily ; use the greatest care and secure a few views of 
artistic merit, and Xxy to improve upon them the next 

In this way the taking of marine pictures may be 
made by far the pleasantest portion of the amateur's ex- 
perience. So take the camera to the seaside, and with it 
placed in readiness upon the quiet wharf or the shelving 
water-washed rocks, we may take our summer's rest 
while the ear is ever conscious of 

" That strain of salenm music from the sea. 
As tfiough the bright air trembled to disclose 
An ocean mystery." 

Chapter XI 


F all the latest developments of 
photography, undoubtedly the 
most interesting, from the ar- 
tistic standpoint at least, is pho- 
tography at night, out-of-doors. 
Mr. W. A. Fraser. a well-known 
skillful amateur, contributed to 
The Photographic Times, from 
whose columns many of our 
chapters have been taken, the results of his successful 
attempts in this interesting work. 

The first requisite, says Mr. Fraser, is a strong 
weather-proof box camera. The one I use for this work 
is an old style Scovill "detective," long ago laid on the 
shelf, but it struck me when thinking the matter over 
that its strength and solidity made it a very suitable 
instrument for this purpose, and much work done with it 
during the past winter has confirmed me in this opinion. 
I carry a light folding tripod which can be quickly 
and easily attached to or detached from the camera, as 


working in the dark with hands numb from cold and wet, 
the simplest operation becomes a task, and the more 
simple the apparatus, the bet- 
ter the chance of success. 

Mr. Martin advises the use 
of a slow orthochromatic plate, 
but considering the good qual- 
ity of the fast plates as now 
made, and the great advantage 
gained by reducing the time of 
exposure, an advantage which 
one will appreciate after a 
single trial, I very much pre- 
BY BRYANT PARK AUKRTHKSTOKM fcF them, aud rcsults do uot, 
in my opinion, suffer in the least from their use. 

As halation must be guard- 
ed against, I adopted for this 
work the Seed non-halation 
plate, and back them as a 
further precaution. 

Working on Mr. Martin's 
lines I at first included in 
the exposure a minute or two 
of the last departing day- 
light, if it might so be called, 
but my negatives approached 

too nearly daylight results, THESAvoyHOTEL.NKwYORK,sTi)HMVMOHT 


and I have since waited until night has really fallen 
before making the exposure. 

Having chosen the view and set up the camera, if the 
only lights included are gas lamps, the exposure with this 
lens and plate should be from eight to ten minutes, de- 
pending somewhat upon the distance to the nearest light, 
while, if any near electric lights are included, from two 
and one-half to three and 
one-half minutes will suffice. 
When I speak of electric 
lights, I refer to those en- 
closed in opal shades, such 
as are used on Fifth and up- 
per Madison Avenue in our 
city. Unprotected lights or 
those enclosed in plain glass 
shades I haver never at- 
tempted, and doubt very 
much if they can be suc- 
cessfully photographed. e-ntranck to centkal park 

My moonlight pictures were taken between lo and 1 1 
o'clock, P.M., with moon almost full, and ten minutes' 

During the exposure, a watch must be kept that no 

vehicle carrying lights crosses the field of view. My 

practice is to stand beside the camera, keeping one hand 

firmly on it if it is blowing hard — several exposures I 



found were ruined through movement of the camera 
caused by the strong wind. — then when a cab or other 
vehicle carrying a light enters the field of view, I. with 
the other hand, cover the lens until it has passed. 

Moving objects not bearing lights make no impres- 
sion on the plate. 

In the development I aim at softness, and use a 
rather weak metol developer, two ounces stock solution 
diluted with water to four ounces, and with very little, 
say two drachms, alkali, no bromide. 

The amount of detail picked up by the lens when 
using this plate has been a constant source of wonder to 
me ; in every case very 
much more than my eye 
could see was disclosed 
when the plate had been 
developed and fixed. 

I prefer a stormy night 
for this work, either snow 
or rain, as the artistic ef- 
fect is unquestionably 
much greater on these oc- 
THt, aiAN I Hoj Kis. KROM iKMKAL 1-AKK Befofe Starting out oue's 

mind must be made up to bear with equanimity' all sorts 
of chaff and uncomplimentary remarks, which are sure 
to be showered upon the photographer by the majority 


of the passers by. I have received a greal deal of advice 
and sympathy concerning my mental make-up and con- 
dition, and if Robert Burns were still living, I should 
suggest to him that a trial 
of night photography might 
partially, at least, fulfil his 
wish as expressed in the 

" O would some power the giftie gie us 
To see oursels as itbers see us," 

This is varied by a mul- 
titude of inquiries ranging 
from the sublime to the ri- 
diculous, and also indicative 

that an interest in science is moonlight, central park 

abroad on the streets of New York, as I have more than 
once heard John explaining to Mary as they passed that 
I was taking a picture by those X-rays the papers have 
been talking about. 

I firmly believe there are great possibilities for pic- 
torial effect in this night photography, and to the en- 
thusiastic amateur, whose daylight leisure hours are 
limited, a very broad field of work is opened up. I con- 
fidently expect to see great improvement, and some 
startling effects produced, when it has been taken up 
and studied by a greater number of workers. 


CDapter XII 


N an article contributed to The 
American Annual of Photoc- 
RAPHY for 1897, Mr. J. Wells 
Champney, the gifted artist 
and pastel portrait painter, 
has described his methods of 
making photographic por- 
traits, as an amateur, in his 
own studio. My studio light 
is a good one, he writes, and 
photographs can readily be 
made there under ordinary 

STUDY By J wblls champ^ky conditlous, but It occurred 

<Fr.™rvn«tunin.,«irroo j,^ ^^^ ^}tx!L\, Rew aud pretty 

arrangements of light would vary the common side light 
effect, and so with curtains and screens, and mirrors as 
well, I have tried a variety of effects. 

The most useful, I should think, to the amateur, fre- 
quently cramped for space and limited in light, is the 
first 1 shall describe. 

My window consists of a large plate of glass fully 


eight feet wide by ten feet high. There is no top light, 
and J " 

I ha 
ing a 
the o 
ing i 





5 of 

?v is 
1 be 

PORTRAIT STIDIES By J. C«a«pmiv f"'""" "I- 

dark curtain I raise so that it is above the head of m}' 


sitter, where it forms an excellent background. My sitter, 
we will say, faces into the room and is consequently en- 



Dark curtain to be raised. 

• Sitter with back to window. 

White curtain fastened to ceiling to be pulled down at an angle 
so as to reflect light. 


^ — Camera 

/ Facing window 

Far enough away to shut out sky light. 

tirely in shadow except for such light as falls upon the top 
of the head, shoulders, etc. This is so bright and the shad- 
ow so. dark that no satisfactory photograph could be made 



until the large, white curtain is pulled down and drawn 
somewhat into the room. When the curtain is thus low- 
ered so as to be below the upper line of the dark curtain 
against the window there is produced the soft effect of a 
top lighting in all the parts that were before very dark. 

The camera is set in the room facing the window, 
but far enough back from the window so that the white 
curtain hides from the lens the direct rays of the sky light. 

Under these conditions such pictures can be obtained 
as are shown in the illustrations to this article. 

It not infrequently happens that the sharp brilliant 
light falling on the model is not agreeable. By the use 
of thin draperies suspended by strings, that light can be 
tempered or entirely removed, and the pretty diffused 
top light be produced. 

I am of the opinion that very satisfactory^ results 
could be reached under what would ordinarily seem im- 
possible conditions, and I suggest that some one make 
the experiment in a small room — a hall bedroom — pin- 
ning a blanket across the lower portion of the window, 
and suspending a white sheet from the ceiling. There 
would then be a severe test made of my method. 

To further vary my lighting, I have hung a fine plate- 
glass mirror against my dark window curtain, then plac- 
ing my sitter in the light, this time facing the window, 
photographed from the reflection in the mirror. The 
glass must be a perfect one or there will be distortions. 


Chapter XIII 


HE successful portraiture of chil- 
dren, says Mr. Walter E. Wood- 
bury, may with truth be said to be 
an art in itself, an art that many 
fail in and a few excel. ' ' The great- 
est reverence is due to the child," 
wrote Juvenal, the celebrated satir- 
ist, but "I wonder how long his 
reverence would have lasted had 
he attempted the photographing of 
f.piri«h<, .»« BjRjtwk one," was the query of a more 

ISABEL modern writer and a photographer. 

It is certainly curious to note the antipathy to chil- 
dren displayed by some photographers. Many would 
sooner climb the steepest mountain with their whole kit 
on the back and photograph the summit than remain in 
their studio and attempt the portraiture of a "mother's 
joy." Yet again, there are others who delight in exercis- 
ing their skill upon such subjects, and these men achieve 
success, and reap a rich harvest, for it is through the 
child that the parents are gained. 

A great deal depends upon the qualities possessed by 


the photographer. He must be of a kind and gentle 
nature, one of those men whom 
children take to instinctively. 
How common this difference be- 
tween man and man. A child 
will run into the arms of one 
man with the greatest willing- 
ness and confidence, while the 
very appearance of another will 
frighten them and cause them 
to cling fast to those the^' know. 
Patience is another virtue that 
'""'""'"■'"' MINNIE "*"-'^"'" is absolutely essential, for, with- 
out a large stock of this the photographer cannot hope 
to succeed. If he finds him- 
self losing his temper he must 
be able to gracefully retire to 
the dark-room, unburden him- 
self, and return to the gallery 
with a happy, smiling face. 

If the photographer of to- 
day, with his "cyclone" plates 
and "lightning" lenses, would 
contrast his position with that 
of his earlier brethren he will 
find he has very much to be 

thankful for, and that com- ",-1.1^", i»« rqsita ^ b. j, fwh 


pared with a few years ago, the photography of children 
is a mere pastime. 

However great the care, attention and patience that 
is necessary, is there not a full compensation in the 
charms of childhood, 
the pretty pictures 
that can be made, the 
rosy lips, sparkling 
ej-^es, curly, wavy 
hair, and the artless 
smiles of the little 
ones ? Are not these 
worth any trouble to 
secure? One glance 
at the pictures that il- 
lustrate this chapter 
will suffice. Falk is 
no magician, but a 
man who has learned 
how to secure real 
pictures of childhood 
in all its aspects. '"'^* 

The most successfuPphotographer with children is 
the man who has a kind heart and a warm love for them. 
Mr. Geo. Rockwood, writing upon the subject, says: 
" No man can make a speciality of children. The chil- 
dren must make a speciality of him. It is a pure case of 


selection' or nature's admiration. The children must 
love him. They have intuitive 
perceptions and cannot be de- 
ceived by smooth words and 
pretty gifts any more than the 
animal. They know their affin- 
ities by a nicer, surer test which 
they cannot express. Now, con- 
fidence between the artist and 
his subject is the first element of 
success not only with children 
but quite as much with adults. 

'^"'"^"''lIttle Tuesday' "^ '^""' Art is being SO much studied and 

cultivated in the present day that it often crops out in the 

dressing of children, 

and the charms of 

the little maids and 

masters are much 

enhanced by pictur- 
esque costumes. 

While child beauty 

unadorned and un- 

draped is the more 

classic, the present 

style of dress in 

vogue among the ,-„„.v™.h,,,»s, childhood pjBJWk 

cultured and wealthy is often in the highest degree 



artistic. To me all are comely— if not always in external 
beauty. There is a sweet simplicity to childhood which 
wins my heart, and I 
am free to say that 
they develop the best 
efforts of my artistic 
skill, and I prefer them 
as a field of effort." 

When a child is 
brought to the studio, 
the first duty of the 
photographer is to let 
the little one feel at 
home. There must be 
no fear, no constraint 
visible. Enter thor- 
oughly into the spirit 
thing, and do not be a- 
d to lose your dignity and 
REFLECTIONS sclf-opinion for a little while. 

Children, as a rule, do not possess the vanity of the 
adult who, when he or she is sitting for a portrait, is all 
the time trying to put on an angelic expression, usually 
resulting in an unnatural smirk or idiotic smile. To get 
the best expression with children, they must be inter- 
ested- Watch a child blowing soap bubbles, for instance, 
and you will see a hundred of the cutest expressions 


imaginable, nearly everj' one of which would make a 
picture. With a lens working with a wide aperture, a 
very rapid plate, and a well-lighted studio, there should 
be no difficulty in securing instantaneous pictures of 
these. The studio light, however, should not be too 
glaring, as it must be remembered that the eyes of the 
little ones are not always as strong as our own, and an 
unnatural effect may be the result. Ever}' means, in 
fact, should be taken to add to the comfort of the child. 
By following these general directions and suggestions 
one may hope to have success in this interesting branch 
of photographic work. 




THIS, the concluding chap- 
ter of our book, consists of 
an article contributed by 
Doctor Hemingway toTnK 
American" Annual of Pu<»- 
TonkAPHv, a year book 
which has supplied much 
of the present volume. 

If we will stop a mo- 
ment and study art as ex- 
emplitied by the great mas- 
ters, as will be shown by 
the illustrations in this 
*^''- ' article, we will see that the 

scheme, or rather the form, of producing art is of neces- 
sity divided into certain forms. The simplest of these 
forms i.s exemplified by thnt of Murillo"s "• Immaculate 
Conception," Fig. i, which of itself is a simple demon- 
stration of the angular forms of composition. Now, 
therefore, in taking this illustration as an evidence of 
artistic work, it shows conclusively that the angles are 

sc\/j(,Hr .i.\7) sfunow 

the essential part of the work. When we look upon an\' 
subject in the way of art, we look upon it in the point of 
pleasure that there is to be 
^jained thereby. 

Curves are but rounded 
angles. In this particular 
study it will be seen that 
the lines, as indicated in 
the reproductions, are such 
that the eye is relieved 
from all strain, because the 
vanishing point is within 
the center of the picture. 
Now, on the other hand, 
where we have the double 
'^'"'' * triangle, as in illustration 

Fig. 2, we see that the grouping is such that the vanish- 
ing point is in the center ; and in these classical studies, 
it will be shown later on. that the groupings of individ- 
uals, or subjects, is an essential part of the photographer, 
if he will produce, or desires to produce, perfect art.. 

Xow. while there has been a demonstration of the 
angular part of work in illustration Fig 2. we have what 
is called a circular composition ; in reality the composi- 
tion is within a circle in Fig. ;,. 

While these laws are laws of art. it is an unfortunate 
thing that the photographer does not recognize the fact 


that the lines, curves, angles, and the like, make up a 
part of his work. He goes haphazard and takes what- 
ever he can get, no matter what it is. without thought as 
to the result. 

Now, for instance. Fig. 4 ; here is a composition on 
what is called the oblique ; that is to say. that this com- 
position, or picture, is formed in such a way that while 
the center of the picture is in the center, the auxiliaries, 
or side parts of the picture, are as important a part as the 
picture itself. It is evident, therefore, that a man shall 
understand, in taking a picture, whether it be a human 
being or a landscape, that he shall be cognizant of the 
ftict that the original lines, curves, beauty, and the like, 
exist to-day as they did 
years ago ; that the "Venus 
de Milo" can be reproduced 
to-day, there is no (juesticm 
— none, whatever. 

It is hesitancy in art. 
Many reproductions that 
have been made are poor 
simply because there is 
lack of appreciation of ;irt 
as it exists to-day. 

We will, then, take as ^"^ 3 

a demonstration of the fact, a landscape. The landscape 
has its points of vision and its points of disappearance. 


As, for instance, we take the ligure of an individual 

lying face down in the sand, or elsewhere, and, as will 

he seen by the illustration. Kig. 5. that while there are 

curves, they can l)e called at the same time angles, and. 

as a result, we can have as perfect a picture as the artist 

may seek or desire. So. in the end. it is simplv this : if 

one has a proper conception of what constitutes art, he 

will be enabled, knowing 

beforehand what he wishes 

to accomplish, to so group 

his tigures. that the result 

will be pleasant not only 

to himself but to everyone 

who may look upon his 


. These few points are 

given simply with the idea 

that in a composition any 

photographer, while one 

no. 4 may not seek to attain the 

highest possible height, might thereby be able to produce 

such work that will not alone be a pleasure to himself 

but to his friends. With these few hints, and wiih the 

illustrations that are given in the article, there should be 

a better appreciation as to what constitutes the real. 

especial points as to composition in art. It is absurd to 

think, for a moment, that these pictures were accidental 



because they so contain the idea of composition ; so. 
then, having composition in view, as properly dictated by 
the older masters and shown in the " Sistine Madonna," 
that one may seriously con- 
sider before takinjr a picture. 

The perseverance and in- 
telligence as shown by our 
English friends is so great 
that we can readily afford to 
put in three or four hours a 
day for several days till we 
have acquired a grouping 
that is to our satisfaction. 

The angles may be vari- 
ously placed, that is. the 
single angle may be vertical, 
horizontal, or inverted. 

In the whole matter of 
art, composition is, of neces- 
sity, an essential part. In 
the half section of the human 
body, in the horizontal posi- 
tion (not vertical), it will be 
seen that the curves, confor- 
mations, and the like, are such that they reallv represent 
outstanding hills in the reproduction in part from Dr. 
Rimmer's "Art Anatomv." 


In the reproduction of the painting representing 
sunset at Cohasset, Fig. 6, every detail has been duly con- 
sidered. It is a rough sketch of a picture by the late 
Alfred Perkins, and if you will for a moment consider 
the diversion of vision, as is actualh^ compelled by the 
angles of the pictures, it will be seen that is impossible, 
that the eye cannot, for a moment, literally rest upon any 
one especial point. 

The eye is susceptible to influences of all kinds. If, 
then , there is a picture before an individual which has 
several angles, or curves, it necessarily follows, that by 
the diverting of the eye from the especial center of the 
picture all strain disappears ; at the same time, uncon- 
sciously, the eye rests upon the center of the picture, but, 
as before mentioned, it is, to a certain extent, diverted by 
the outstanding lines. 

Where one will see a picture, and is immediatel)^ on 
seeing it dissatisfied, it lacks that essential thing which 
is called quality. Before all things qualit)^ should exist 
in all pictures. Quality is that essential factor which 
distinguishes one picture from another. 

If a picture has quality it speaks to you, and, gov- 
erned by your environments, it appeals to you in its 
especial quality. 

That pictures cannot appeal alike to all men is shown 
by the remarks of a very distinguished orator of the 
United States. Take the man, for instance, at the sea- 



shore. One passes along the beach ; the hymnal, cad- 
ence, grandeur of surf all appeal to God as the grand 
Artificer of the universe. The man stands enthralled ; 
the cadence of the waves and the general hymnal compels 
him to stand there entranced, unable for expression. 

Another man comes along. He looks out on the sea 
and waves ; what was a hymn of joy to the first man was 
a hymn of grief to the second one, because it inspired in 

him thoughts of the death of his wife and children on 
ship. Where in one case it was a hymnal of joy. in the 
other case it was a dirge. 

The third man looking for driftwood condemns the 
sea, the earth, the sky, and everything, because there 
was no driftwood for him, and he saw no sentiment in 
the whole scene. 



So, therefore, our own environment and education 
must govern us in our appreciation and composition of 
pictures. Our own associations will do the same, but the 
artistic sentiment should be so strong that we can rise 
beyond personal sentiment and seek to produce what is 

A consideration of the men in the past and the pres- 
ent who have achieved the greatest distinction in photo- 
graphic art — it will be found they primarily were artists 
or art students, or those in whom the art instinct was 

If, in the horizontal picture of the human body, the 
reader will place a piece of white paper abutting on the 
line of section he will have the effect of distant hills, 
which can be further elaborated by placing a small circle 
at the point of greatest concavity, and by placing a ship 
or so on horizon line or below it have a fair seascape, 
with lines indicating the reflection of the circle. Huxley 
has said there is no intrinsic beautv in a flower, for the 
clodhopper will crush it under his feet without thought 
of its beauty or aroma. In the same flower uncrushed a 
botanist, a connoisseur will find unutterable pleasure. 
Therefore, education into the vast depths of the beauties 
of nature is a necessity, and is governed by our environ- 
ment. Once learned, the sky, clouds, landscape, every- 
thing in fact, is a study of most magnificent and con- 
stantly changing beauty. 





Amateur Photography. 

A Practical Guide for the Beginner. Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Fifth 
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The Scovill Photographic Series. 

A Library of fifty-six different publications. Edited by W. I. Lincoln 
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A Collection of Photogravures from representative negatives by leading 
photographic artists of Europe and America. Compiled by W. I. Lincoln 
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A Series of Artistic Landscapes from Nature, the negatives by W. I. 
Lincoln Adams, Reproduced in Photogravure. Printed on extra heavy 
plate paper. Size 1 1 x 14 inches, suitable for framing. 

Sold singly or in sets, 50c. per copy (any plate). 

The set of four, $1.50. 




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Lincoln Adams. These plates adequately illustrate the pictorial phrases 
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Price, postpaid, $4.00 



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